What are the what are the three main reasons of pollution why d causes of air pollution in inner cities

Original system mapping by Keith Cotton, CrispAir.
“I don’t know what’s the main cause, how many people are in hospital because of pollution, how it will affect me in 20 years’ time, how it will affect my kids. But if I had this information, I would start seeing things from a different perspective.” Participant in families focus group
PM10 are larger particles than PM2.5 and come from similar sources. PM of all sizes has been linked to chronic inflammation and is associated with similar health risks including lung development during pregnancy and early childhood, as well as lung function decline in older adults.
The more we know about air pollution in urban areas, the more we will be able to design effective solutions.  What we’ve learned We still have a long way to go to. Air quality in the UK is currently measured against the legal limits set by the EU. For PM2.5 and PM10 in particular, these legal limits are substantially higher than the guidance from the World Health Organisation. NO 2 levels are predicted to improve substantially with the introduction of and subsequent expansion of the Ultra Low Emissions Zone . Particulate matter is not predicted to improve as substantially. While vehicles are the single largest source of both NO 2 and particulate matter, there are a number of other major sources including construction, commercial cooking, wood burning and boilers and generators. People’s total exposure is determined by both outdoor and indoor pollution and the time they spend in each of these environments. The pollutants responsible for air quality There are three main pollutants associated with poor health in inner cities:
NO 2 , typically in areas of high vehicle traffic. Exposure to NO 2 has been associated with a range of health effects including organ and neurodevelopment during pregnancy, new onset asthma in children and lung function decline in older adults.
This insight will help us develop more effective projects to address poor air quality and improve the health of local residents – particularly the vulnerable groups who are the focus of our programme.

What are the what are the three main reasons of pollution why d causes of  air pollution in inner citiesWhat are the what are the three main reasons of pollution why d causes of air pollution in inner cities
PM2.5 or particulate matter, such as soot, what are the three main reasons of pollution why d smoke, dust and liquid droplets measuring less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter. These tiny particles are of particular concern to our health because they can enter the bloodstream and lodge deep in our organs.
The sources of air pollution are intrinsically linked to how we live in cities. While many people see cars and transport as the most obvious causes of air pollution, nearly 70% of particulate matter is related to the built environment such as heating of buildings, construction and traffic related to it.
Where is air pollution concentrated in Lambeth and Southwark? Annual averages for PM2.5, PM10, and NO 2 show that people in Lambeth and Southwark are exposed to more air pollution in the north of the boroughs and along the main roads. While the boroughs are within the EU legal limits for particulate matter, NO 2 currently exceeds these limits. Pollution from particulate matter across the whole of the boroughs is above the World Health Organisation guidance, with the north of the boroughs and main roads also exceeding WHO guidance for NO 2 . Each dot represents a small area in Lambeth and Southwark. Orange dots are above the WHO guidelines, grey dots are below them. Predictive analysis shows that while NO 2 levels are expected to improve over time due to ULEZ and other emissions regulations, PM levels are not. People’s perceptions of causes As part of the groundwork for our programme, we researched air pollution awareness among people living in our inner-city area. Together with partners including Global Action Plan, Opinium and BMG Research we did:
In Lambeth and Southwark, heating our buildings, construction and traffic related to it, are a much larger source of particulate matter air pollution than how people travel and get around the city.
Original system mapping by Keith Cotton, CrispAir.
Only 16% is related to how residents get around the city. This system map shows the different sources of inner-city air pollution, based on data from the London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. Transboundary and other sources have been given a variable source apportionment. This is because air moves around and pollutants from these sources can vary significantly depending on irregular factors such as weather conditions. what are the factors that cause environmental poll